Thursday, July 30, 2009

ANNA UNIVTIRUNELVELI ME COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS SYSLLABUS

ANNA UNIVERSITY TIRUNELVELI
M.E. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
CURRICULUM 2005 - FULL TIME MODE
SEMESTER – I
Code No. Course Title L T P M
Theory
MA1616A Applied Mathematics for Electronics Engineers
3 1 0 100
CO1601 Advanced Radiation Systems
3 0 0 100
CO1602 Modern Digital Communication Techniques
3 0 0 100
AN1601 Advanced Digital Signal Processing
3 1 0 100
CO1603 Optical Communication Networks
3 0 0 100
E1*** Elective I 3 0 0 100
Practical
CO1604 Communication System Lab I
0 0 4 100

SEMESTER – II
Code No. Course Title L T P M
Theory
CO1651 Mobile Communication Networks
3 0 0 100
WS1621 Multimedia Compression Techniques
3 0 0 100
CO1652 Microwave Integrated Circuits
3 0 0 100
CO1653 Satellite Communication
3 0 0 100
E2*** Elective II 3 0 0 100
E3*** Elective III 3 0 0 100
Practical
CO1654 Communication System Lab II
0 0 4 100

SEMESTER – III

Code No. Course Title L T P M
Theory
E4*** Elective IV 3 0 0 100
E5*** Elective V 3 0 0 100
E6*** Elective VI 3 0 0 100
Practical
CO1751 Project Work (Phase I) 0 0 12 *

SEMESTER – IV

Code No. Course Title L T P M
CO1751 Project Work (Phase II) 0 0 24 *
* As per Regulations 2005


LIST OF ELECTIVES
M.E. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Code No. Course Title L T P M
CO1621 RF System Design
3 0 0 100
CO1622 Advanced Microwave Systems
3 0 0 100
CO1623 Communication protocol Engineering
3 0 0 100
CO1624 DSP Processor Architecture and programming
3 0 0 100
CO1625 Wavelets and Multi-resolution Processing
3 0 0 100
CO1626 Speech and Audio Signal Processing.
3 0 0 100
CO1627 Network Routing Algorithms
3 0 0 100
CO1628 Simulation of Communication Systems and Networks
3 0 0 100
CO1629 Global Positioning Systems
3 0 0 100
CO1630 Communication Network Security
3 0 0 100
CO1631 Soft Computing
3 0 0 100
CO1632 Digital Communication Receivers
3 0 0 100
AN1604 Advanced Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
3 0 0 100
AN1621 Digital Image Processing
3 0 0 100
AN1628 Internetworking multimedia
3 0 0 100
AN1629 Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility in System Design
3 0 0 100
AN1630 High Performance Communication Networks
3 0 0 100
AN1654 Embedded systems
3 0 0 100
DC1621 High Speed Switching Architecture
3 0 0 100
CO1645 Special Elective 3 0 0 100


MA1616A APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS
(With effect from 2006-2007)
3 1 0 100
UNIT I (9) Linear Algebraic equation and Eigen Value Problem
System of Equations – Solution by Gauss Elimination, Gauss – Jordan and LU decomposition method – Jacobi, Gauss – Seidal iteration method – Eigen Values of a matrix by Jacobi and Power methods.
UNIT II (9) Wave Equation
Solution of initial and boundary value problems – Characteristics – D’Alembert’s Solution – Significance of characteristic curves – Laplace transform solutions for displacement in a long string – a long string under its weight – Longitudinal vibration of a elastic bar with prescribed force on one end – free vibrations of a string.
UNIT III (9) Special Functions
Bessel’s equation – Bessel Functions – Legendre’s Equation – Legendre Polynomials – Rodrigue’s formula – Recurrence relations – generating function and orthogonal property of Bessel functions and Legendre polynomials.
UNIT IV (9) Random Variables
One dimensional Random Variables – Moments and MGF – Binomial, Poisson, Geometrical, Uniform, Exponential, Normal and Welbull distributions – Two dimensional Random Variables – Marginal and Conditional distribution – Covariance and correlation coefficient – Functions of one dimensional and Two dimensional Random Variables.
UNIT V (9) Queuing Theory
Single and Multiple server Markovian queuing models – Steady state system size probabilities – Little’s formula – customers impatience – priority queues – M/G/1 queuing system – P.K formula.
L – 45, T – 15, Total - 60
References:
1. Jain M.K., Iyengar. S.R.K. & Jain. R.K, “Numerical Methods for Scientific and Engineering Computation”, New Age International (P) ltd, Publishers, 2003.
2. Sankara Rao K, “Introduction to Partial Differential” , Prentice Hall of India, 1997.
3. Grewai B.S, “Higher Engineering Mathematics”, Khanna Publishers, 2005.
4. Kapur J.N & Saxena. H.C, “Mathematics Statistics”, S.Chand & Company Limited, New Delhi,2003.
5. Taha H.A, “Operations Research- An Introduction”, Prentice Hall of India, 2001.
6. Gross D & Harris C.M, “Fundamentals of Queuing Theory” , John Wiley & Sons, 1985.



CO1601 ADVANCED RADIATION SYSTEMS 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
CONCEPTS OF RADIATION.

Retarded vector potentials – Heuristic approach and Maxwell’s equation approach. The Lorentz gauge condition. Vector potential in Phasor form. Fields radiated by an alternating current element. Total power radiated and radiation resistance. Radiation from Half wave dipole from assumed current distribution. Power radiated in the farfield. Electric vector potential F for a magnetic current source M. Far zone fields due to magnetic source M.

UNIT II 9
ANTENNA ARRAYS.

N element linear arrays – uniform amplitude and spacing. Phased arrays. Directivity of Broadside and End fire arrays. Three dimensional characteristics. Binomial arrays and Dolph-Tchebycheff arrays. Circular array. Antenna Synthesis- Line source and discretization of continuous sources. Schelkunoff polynomial method. Fourier transform method.

UNIT III 9
APERTURE ANTENNAS

Magnetic current – Duality. Electric and Magnetic current sheets as sources. Huyghens source. Radiation through an aperture in an absorbing screen. Fraunhoffer and Fresnel diffraction. Cornu Spiral. Complimentary screens and slot antennas. Slot and dipoles as dual antennas. Babinets principle. Fourier transform in aperture antenna theory.

UNIT IV 9
HORN , MICROSTRIP , REFLECTOR ANTENNAS.

E and H plane sectoral Horns. Pyramidal horns. Conical and corrugated Horns. Multimode horns. Phase center.
Microstrip antennas – feeding methods. Rectangular patch- Transmission line model.
Parabolic Reflector antennas – Prime focus and cassegrain reflectors. Equivalent focal length of Cassegrain antennas. Spillover and taper efficiencies. Optimum illumination.

UNIT V 9
ANTENNA POLARIZATION.

Simple relationship involving spherical triangles. Linear, Elliptical and circular polarization. Development of the Poincare sphere. Representation of the state of polarization in the Poincare sphere. Random polarization – Stokes parameters.
Total:45

REFERENCES

1. Balanis, C.A., “Antenna Theory” Wiley,2003
2. Jordan, E.C., “ Electromagnetic waves and Radiating systems”. PHI 2003
3. Krauss, J.D., “ Radio Astronomy” McGraw-Hill 1966, for the last unit (reprints available)
4. Krauss, J.D.,, Fleisch,D.A., “Electromagnetics” McGraw-Hill,1999



CO1602 MODERN DIGITAL COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
POWER SPECTRUM AND COMMUNICATION OVER MEMORYLESS CHANNEL:

PSD of a synchronous data pulse stream; M-ary Markov source; Convolutionaly coded modulation; Continuous phase modulation – Scalar and vector communication over memoryless channel – Detection criteria.

UNIT II 9
COHERENT AND NON-COHERENT COMMUNICATION:
Coherent receivers – Optimum receivers in WGN – IQ modulation & demodulation – Noncoherent receivers in random phase channels; M-FSK receivers – Rayleigh and Rician channels – Partially coherent receives – DPSK; M-PSK; M-DPSK,-BER Performance Analysis.

UNIT III 9
BANDLIMITED CHANNELS AND DIGITAL MODULATIONS:
Eye pattern; demodulation in the presence of ISI and AWGN; Equalization techniques – IQ modulations; QPSK; QAM; QBOM; -BER Performance Analysis. – Continuous phase modulation; CPFM; CPFSK; MSK,OFDM.

UNIT IV 9
BLOCK CODED DIGITAL COMMUNICATION:

Architecture and performance – Binary block codes; Orthogonal; Biorthogonal; Transorthogonal – Shannon’s channel coding theorem; Channel capacity; Matched filter; Concepts of Spread spectrum communication – Coded BPSK and DPSK demodulators – Linear block codes; Hammning; Golay; Cyclic; BCH ; Reed – Solomon codes..

UNIT V 9
CONVOLUTIONAL CODED DIGITAL COMMUNICATION:

Representation of codes using Polynomial, State diagram, Tree diagram, and Trellis diagram – Decoding techniques using Maximum likelihood, Viterbi algorithm, Sequential and Threshold methods – Error probability performance for BPSK and Viterbi algorithm, Turbo Coding.

Total: 45





REFERENCES:

1. M.K.Simon, S.M.Hinedi and W.C.Lindsey, Digital communication techniques; Signaling and detection, Prentice Hall India, New Delhi. 1995.
2. Simon Haykin, Digital communications, John Wiley and sons, 1998
3. Wayne Tomasi, Advanced electronic communication systems, 4th Edition Pearson Education Asia, 1998
4. B.P.Lathi Modern digital and analog communication systems, 3rd Edition, Oxford University press 1998.


AN1601 ADVANCED DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING 3 1 0 100

[Review of discrete-time signals and systems- DFT and FFT, Z-Transform, Digital Filters is recommended]

UNIT I 9
DISCRETE RANDOM SIGNAL PROCESSING

Discrete Random Processes- Ensemble averages, stationary processes, Autocorrelation and Auto covariance matrices. Parseval's Theorem, Wiener-Khintchine Relation- Power Spectral Density-Periodogram Spectral Factorization , Filtering random processes. Low Pass Filtering of White Noise. Parameter estimation: Bias and consistency.

UNIT II 9
SPECTRUM ESTIMATION

Estimation of spectra from finite duration signals, Non-Parametric Methods-Correlation Method , Periodogram Estimator, Performance Analysis of Estimators -Unbiased, Consistent Estimators- Modified periodogram, Bartlett and Welch methods, Blackman –Tukey method. Parametric Methods - AR, MA, ARMA model based spectral estimation. Parameter Estimation -Yule-Walker equations, solutions using Durbin’s algorithm

UNIT III 9
LINEAR ESTIMATION AND PREDICTION

Linear prediction- Forward and backward predictions, Solutions of the Normal equations- Levinson-Durbin algorithms. Least mean squared error criterion -Wiener filter for filtering and prediction , FIR Wiener filter and Wiener IIR filters ,Discrete Kalman filter

UNIT IV 9
ADAPTIVE FILTERS

FIR adaptive filters -adaptive filter based on steepest descent method-Widrow-Hoff LMS adaptive algorithm, Normalized LMS. Adaptive channel equalization-Adaptive echo cancellation-Adaptive noise cancellation- Adaptive recursive filters (IIR). RLS adaptive filters-Exponentially weighted RLS-sliding window RLS.



UNIT V 9
MULTIRATE DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

Mathematical description of change of sampling rate - Interpolation and Decimation , Decimation by an integer factor - Interpolation by an integer factor, Sampling rate conversion by a rational factor, Filter implementation for sampling rate conversion- direct form FIR structures, Polyphase filter structures, time-variant structures. Multistage implementation of multirate system. Application to sub band coding - Wavelet transform and filter bank implementation of wavelet expansion of signals.
L 45 T15 Total 60

REFERENCES:
1. Monson H.Hayes, Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,Singapore, 2002.
2. John G. Proakis, Dimitris G.Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing Pearson Education, 2002.
3. John G. Proakis et.al.,’Algorithms for Statistical Signal Processing’, Pearson Education, 2002.
4. Dimitris G.Manolakis et.al.,’Statistical and adaptive signal Processing’, McGraw Hill, Newyork,2000.
5. Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E.Woods, ‘Digital Image Processing’, Pearson Education, Inc., Second Edition, 2004.( For Wavelet Transform Topic)



CO1603 OPTICAL COMMUNICATION NETWORKS 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
OPTICAL NETWORKING COMPONENTS:
First- and second-generation optical networks, Components: couplers, isolators, circulators, multiplexers, filters, amplifiers, switches, and wavelength converters.

UNIT II 9
SONET AND SDH NETWORKS:

Integration of TDM signals, Layers, Framing, Transport overhead, Alarms, Multiplexing, Network elements, Topologies, Protection architectures, Ring architectures, Network Management.

UNIT III 9
BROADCAST – AND- SELECT NETWORKS:

Topologies, Single-hop, Multihop, and Shufflenet multihop networks, Media-Access control protocols, Test beds.

UNIT IV 9
WAVELENGTH-ROUTING NETWORKS:

Node designs, Issues in Network design and operation, Optical layer cost Tradeoffs, Routing and Wavelength assignment, Wavelength routing test beds.

UNIT V 9
HIGH CAPACITY NETWORKS:
SDM, TDM, and WDM approaches, Application areas, Optical TDM Networks: Multiplexing and demultiplexing, Synchronization, Broadcast networks, Switch-based networks, OTDM test beds.
Total: 45

REFERENCES:

1. Rajiv Ramaswami and Kumar Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A practical perspective, Morgan Kaufmann, 2nd edition, 2001.
2. Vivek Alwayn, Optical Network Design and Implementation, Pearson Education, 2004.
3. Hussein T.Mouftab and Pin-Han Ho, Optical Networks: Architecture and Survivability, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.
4. Biswanath Mukherjee, Optical Communication Networks, McGraw Hill, 1997






CO1604 COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LABORATORY I 0 0 4 100

1. Antenna Radiation Pattern measurement.
2. Simulation of Modulation and Coding in a AWGN Communication Channel using Simulation Packages.
3. Implementation of Adaptive Filters, periodogram and multistage multirate system in DSP Processor
4. Performance evaluation of Digital Data Transmission through Fiber Optic Link.
5. Study of Spread Spectrum Techniques.
6. Simulation of QMF using Simulation Packages.
7. Implementation of Video Link using Optical Fiber.
8. Implementation of Linear and Cyclic Codes.





CO1651 MOBILE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
OPERATION OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

Operation of first, second, and third generation wireless networks: cellular systems, medium access techniques, Mobile networks Elementary Principles of cellular Telephony Channel Division Techniques (TDMA, FDMA, CDMA) Cellular Coverage Methods Network Planning and Resource Allocation, Network Dimensioning ,Mobility Management Procedures

UNIT II 9
PROPAGATION MODELS AND AIR PROTOCOLS

Radio propagation models, error control techniques, handoff, power control, Soft handover, Forward link ,Reverse link , common air protocols (AMPS, IS-95, IS-136, GSM, GPRS, EDGE, WCDMA, cdma2000, etc)

UNIT III 9
MOBILE NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

General Architecture definition, Mobile Terminals (MT, SIM)
Radio Section (BTS, BSC) Core Network (MSC, G-MSC, VLR, HLR, AuC)
User and Control Plane Protocol Stack, MAP & SS#7, the Key Role of Signaling Interfaces and Network Entities Relation The Physical Channel, The Logical Channels Terminal, Call and Network Management Procedures, Network Planning.

UNIT IV 9
WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS

Wireless Local Area Networks , General Characteristics of the Hyper LAN System, 802.11 Standard, Basic DCF access scheme
DCF Access Scheme with Handshaking, PCF Access Scheme, The 802.11a Standard, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Wireless Sensor Networks, Routing Energy Efficiency, Localization, Clustering.

UNIT V 9
SECURITY ISSUES IN WIRELESS NETWORKS

Security in Wireless Networks, Secure routing, Key Pre-distribution and Management, Encryption and Authentication, Security in Group Communication, Trust Establishment and Management, Denial of Service Attacks, Energy-aware security mechanisms, Location verification, Security on Data fusion.
TOTAL : 45

REFERENCES
1. W. Stallings, "Wireless Communications and Networks", Prentice Hall, 2002.
2. V.K. Garg, "IS-95 CDMA and CDMA 2000", Prentice Hall PTR, 2000.
3. T.S. Rappaport, "Wireless Communications: Principles & Practice", Second Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002.
4. Leon-Garcia and I. Widjaja, "Communication Networks, Fundamental Concepts and Key Architectures", McGraw-Hill, 2000.
5. J.Schiller,”Mobile Communications", Addison Wesley, 2000.
6. Fred Halsall, "Multimedia Communications, Applications, Networks, Protocols and Standards", Addison Wesley, 2001.
7. Uyless Black ,”Mobile and Wireless Networks” , Prentice Hall PTR, 1996.

CO1652 MICROWAVE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
TECHNOLOGY OF HYBRID MICS

Dielectric substrates - thick film technology and materials - thin film technology and materials – methods of testing – encapsulation of devices for MICs – mounting of active devices.

UNIT II 9
TECHNOLOGY OF MONOLITHIC MICS

Processes involved in fabrication – epitaxial growth of semiconductor layer – growth of dielectric layer – diffusion-ion implantation – electron beam technology.

UNIT III 9
ANALYSIS OF MICROSTRIP LINE

Methods of conformal transformation – numerical method for analysis – hybrid mode analysis – coupled mode analysis- method of images – losses in miscrostrips.

UNIT IV 9
COUPLED MICROSTRIPS, SLOT LINE AND COPLANAR VEGUIDES

Coupled microstrips – even and odd mode analysis – microstrip directional couplers – branch line couplers – periodic branch line couplers – synchronous branch line couplers.

UNIT V 9
LUMPED ELEMENTS AND NON-RECIPROCAL COMPONENTS

Design and fabrication using microstrips – flat resistors – flat inductors – interdigital capacitors – sandwich capacitors – ferromagnetic substrates for non-reciprocal devices – microstrip circulators – latching circulators – isolators – phase shifters.
TOTAL : 45


REFERENCES

1.Gupta,K.C, and Amarjit singh – “Microwave Integrated Circuits” – John Wiley and sons – Wiley Eastern Reprint, 1978.
2.Hoffmann, R.K – “Handbook of Microwave Integrated Circuits” – Artech House, 1987.

AN1621 DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
DIGITAL IMAGE FUNDAMENTALS:

Elements of digital image processing systems, Elements of visual perception, psycho visual model, brightness, contrast, hue, saturation, mach band effect, Color image fundamentals -RGB,HSI models, Image sampling, Quantization, dither, Two-dimensional mathematical preliminaries.

UNIT II 9
IMAGE TRANSFORMS:

1D DFT, 2D transforms – DFT, DCT, Discrete Sine, Walsh, Hadamard, Slant, Haar, KLT, SVD, Wavelet Transform.

UNIT III 9
IMAGE ENHANCEMENT AND RESTORATION:

Histogram modification and specification techniques, Noise distributions, Spatial averaging, Directional Smoothing, Median, Geometric mean, Harmonic mean, Contraharmonic and Yp mean filters, Homomorphic filtering, Color image enhancement. Image Restoration – degradation model, Unconstrained and Constrained restoration, Inverse filtering – removal of blur caused by uniform linear motion, Wiener filtering, Geometric transformations – spatial transformations, Gray-Level interpolation.

UNIT IV 9
IMAGE SEGMENTATION AND RECOGNITION:

Edge detection. Image segmentation by region growing, region splitting and merging, edge linking.. Image Recognition – Patterns and pattern classes, Matching by minimum distance classifier, Matching by correlation, Back Propagation Neural Network, Neural Network applications in Image Processing.

UNIT V 9
IMAGE COMPRESSION:

Need for data compression, Huffman,. Run Length Encoding, Shift codes, Arithmetic coding, Vector Quantization, Block Truncation Coding. Transform Coding – DCT and Wavelet. JPEG ,MPEG. Standards, Concepts of Context based Compression. Total: 45



REFERENCES:

1. Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E.Woods, ‘Digital Image Processing’, Pearson Education, Inc., Second Edition, 2004.
2. Anil K. Jain, ‘Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing’, Prentice Hall of India, 2002.
3. David Salomon : Data Compression – The Complete Reference, Springer Verlag New York Inc., 2nd Edition, 2001
4. Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E.Woods, Steven Eddins, ‘ Digital Image Processing using MATLAB’, Pearson Education, Inc., 2004.
5. William K.Pratt, ‘ Digital Image Processing’, John Wiley, NewYork, 2002.
6. Milman Sonka, Vaclav Hlavac, Roger Boyle, ‘Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision’, Brooks/Cole, Vikas Publishing House, II ed., 1999.
7. Sid Ahmed, M.A., ‘Image Processing Theory, Algorithms and Architectures’, McGrawHill, 1995.




AN1604 ADVANCED MICROPROCESSORS AND MICRO CONTROLLERS
3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
MICROPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE

Instruction set – Data formats – Instruction formats – Addressing modes – Memory hierarchy – register file – Cache – Virtual memory and paging – Segmentation – Pipelining – The instruction pipeline – pipeline hazards – Instruction level parallelism – reduced instruction set – Computer principles – RISC versus CISC – RISC properties – RISC evaluation – On-chip register files versus cache evaluation

UNIT II 9
HIGH PERFORMANCE CISC ARCHITECTURE – PENTIUM

The software model – functional description – CPU pin descriptions – RISC concepts – bus operations – Super scalar architecture – pipe lining – Branch prediction – The instruction and caches – Floating point unit –protected mode operation – Segmentation – paging – Protection – multitasking – Exception and interrupts – Input /Output – Virtual 8086 model – Interrupt processing -Instruction types – Addressing modes – Processor flags – Instruction set -programming the Pentium processor.

UNIT III 9
HIGH PERFORMANCE RISC ARCHITECTURE :ARM

The ARM architecture – ARM assembly language program – ARM organization and implementation – The ARM instruction set - The thumb instruction set – ARM CPU cores.

UNIT IV 9
MOTOROLA 68HC11 MICROCONTROLLERS

Instructions and addressing modes – operating modes – Hardware reset – Interrupt system – Parallel I/O ports – Flags – Real time clock – Programmable timer – pulse accumulator – serial communication interface – A/D converter – hardware expansion – Assembly language Programming

UNIT V 9
PIC MICRO CONTROLLER

CPU architecture – Instruction set - Interrupts – Timers – I/O port expansion –I2C bus for peripheral chip access – A/D converter – UART

Total: 45



REFERENCES :

1. Daniel Tabak , ‘’ Advanced Microprocessors” McGraw Hill.Inc., 1995
2. James L. Antonakos, “The Pentium Microprocessor ‘’ Pearson Education, 1997.
3. Steve Furber, ‘’ ARM System –On –Chip architecture “Addison Wesley, 2000.
4. Gene .H.Miller.” Micro Computer Engineering,” Pearson Education, 2003.
5. John .B.Peatman, “Design with PIC Microcontroller, Prentice hall, 1997.
6. James L.Antonakos,” An Introduction to the Intel family of Microprocessors ‘’ Pearson Education 1999.
7. Barry.B.Breg,” The Intel Microprocessors Architecture , Programming and
Interfacing “, PHI, 2002.
8. Valvano "Embedded Microcomputer Systems" Thomson Asia PVT LTD first reprint 2001

Readings :

Web links
www.ocw.nit.edu
www.arm.com

CO1621 RF SYSTEM DESIGN 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
RF ISSUES

Importance of RF design, Electromagnetic Spectrum, RF behaviour of passive components, Chip components and Circuit Board considerations, Scattering Parameters, Smith Chart and applications.
UNIT II 9
RF FILTER DESIGN

Overview , Basic resonator and filter configuration, Special filter realizations, Filter implementations, Coupled filter.

UNIT III 9
ACTIVE RF COMPONENTS & APPLICATIONS

RF diodes, BJT, RF FETs, High electron mobility transistors; Matching and Biasing Networks – Impedance matching using discrete components, Microstripline matching networks, Amplifier classes of operation and biasing networks.

UNIT IV 9
RF AMPLIFIER DESIGNS

Characteristics, Amplifier power relations, Stability considerations, Constant gain circles, Constant VSWR circles, Low Noise circuits, Broadband , high power and multistage amplifiers.
UNIT V 9
OSCILLATORS, MIXERS & APPLICATIONS

Basic Oscillator model, High frequency oscillator configuration, Basic characteristics of Mixers ; Phase Locked Loops ; RF directional couplers and hybrid couplers ; Detector and demodulator circuits.

Total: 45
REFERENCES:

1. Reinhold Ludwig and Powel Bretchko, RF Circuit Design – Theory and Applications, Pearson Education Asia, First Edition, 2001.
2. Joseph . J. Carr, Secrets of RF Circuit Design , McGraw Hill Publishers, Third Edition, 2000.
3. Mathew M. Radmanesh, Radio Frequency & Microwave Electronics, Pearson Education Asia, Second Edition, 2002.
4. Ulrich L. Rohde and David P. NewKirk, RF / Microwave Circuit Design, John Wiley & Sons USA 2000.
5. Roland E. Best, Phase - Locked Loops : Design, simulation and applications, McGraw Hill Publishers 5TH edition 2003.

AN1630 HIGH PERFORMANCE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
PACKET SWITCHED NETWORKS

OSI and IP models, Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), Token ring (IEEE 802.5), Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11) FDDI, DQDB, SMDS: Internetworking with SMDS

UNIT II 9
ISDN AND BROADBAND ISDN

ISDN - overview, interfaces and functions, Layers and services - Signaling System 7 (SS7)- Broadband ISDN architecture and Protocols.

UNIT III 9
ATM AND FRAME RELAY

ATM: Main features-addressing, signaling and routing, ATM header structure-adaptation layer, management and control, ATM switching and transmission.
Frame Relay: Protocols and services, Congestion control, Internetworking with ATM, Internet and ATM, Frame relay via ATM.

UNIT IV 9
ADVANCED NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

IP forwarding architectures overlay model, Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS), integrated services in the Internet, Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP), Differentiated services

UNIT V 9
BLUE TOOTH TECHNOLOGY

The Blue tooth module-Protocol stack Part I: Antennas, Radio interface, Base band, The Link controller, Audio, The Link Manager, The Host controller interface; The Blue tooth module-Protocol stack Part I: Logical link control and adaptation protocol, RFCOMM, Service discovery protocol, Wireless access protocol, Telephony control protocol.
TOTAL : 45
REFERENCES
1. William Stallings,”ISDN and Broadband ISDN with Frame Relay and ATM”, 4th edition, Pearson education Asia, 2002.
2. Leon Gracia, Widjaja, “Communication networks ", Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2000.
3. Jennifer Bray and Charles F.Sturman,”Blue Tooth” Pearson education Asia, 2001.
4. Sumit Kasera, Pankaj Sethi, “ATM Networks ", Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2000.
5. Rainer Handel, Manfred N.Huber and Stefan Schroder ,”ATM Networks”,3rd edition, Pearson education asia,2002.
6. Jean Walrand and Pravin varaiya ,”High Performance Communication networks”,2nd edition, Harcourt and Morgan Kauffman,London,2000.
7. William Stallings,”High-speed Networks and Internets”, 2nd edition, Pearson education Asia, 2003.
CO1623 COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL ENGINEERING 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
NETWORK REFERENCE MODEL

Communication model-software, subsystems, protocol, protocol development methods, Protocol engineering process, Layered architecture, Network services and Interfaces, Protocol functions, OSI model ,TCP/IP protocol suite

UNIT II 9
PROTOCOL SPECIFICATIONS

Components of protocol, Specifications of Communication service, Protocol entity, Interface, Interactions, Multimedia protocol, Internet protocol, SDL, SDL based protocol- other protocol specification languages

UNIT III 9
PROTOCOL VERIFICATION/VALIDATION

Protocol verification, Verification of a protocol using finite state machines, Protocol validation, protocol design errors, Protocol validation approaches, SDL based protocol verification and validation

UNIT IV 9
PROTOCOL CONFORMANCE/PERFORMANCE TESTING

Conformance testing methodology and frame work, Conformance test architectures, Test sequence generation methods, Distributed architecture by local methods, Conformance testing with TTCN, systems with semi controllable interfaces - RIP,SDL based tools for conformance testing, SDL based conformance testing of MPLS Performance testing, SDL based performance testing of TCP and OSPF, Interoperability testing, SDL based interoperability testing of CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA protocol using Bridge, Scalability testing

UNIT V 9
PROTOCOL SYNTHESIS AND IMPLEMENTATION

Protocol synthesis, Interactive synthesis algorithm, Automatic synthesis algorithm, Automatic synthesis of SDL from MSC, Protocol Re-synthesis; Requirements of protocol implementation, Object based approach to protocol implementation, Protocol compilers, Tool for protocol engineering
TOTAL : 45
REFERENCES

1. Pallapa Venkataram and Sunilkumar S.Manvi, “Communication protocol Engineering”, Eastern Economy edition, 2004
2. Richard Lai and Jirachiefpattana, “Communication Protocol Specification and Verification”, Kluwer Publishers, Boston, 1998.
3. Tarnay, K., “Protocol Specification and Testing”, Plenum, New York, 1991.
4. Mohamed G. Gouda, “Elements of Network Protocol Design”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, USA, 1998
5. V.Ahuja, “Design and Analysis of Computer Communication networks”, McGraw-Hill, London, 1982.
6. G.J.Holtzmann, “Design and validation of Computer protocols”, Prentice Hall, New York, 1991.

CO1624 DSP PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE AND PROGRAMMING 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAMMABLE DSPs

Multiplier and Multiplier accumulator – Modified Bus Structures and Memory access in P-DSPs – Multiple access memory – Multi-port memory – VLIW architecture- Pipelining – Special Addressing modes in P-DSPs – On chip Peripherals.

UNIT II 9
TMS320C5X PROCESSOR

Architecture – Assembly language syntax - Addressing modes – Assembly language Instructions - Pipeline structure, Operation – Block Diagram of DSP starter kit – Application Programs for processing real time signals.

UNIT III 9
TMS320C3X PROCESSOR

Architecture – Data formats - Addressing modes – Groups of addressing modes- Instruction sets - Operation – Block Diagram of DSP starter kit – Application Programs for processing real time signals – Generating and finding the sum of series, Convolution of two sequences, Filter design

UNIT IV 9
ADSP PROCESSORS

Architecture of ADSP-21XX and ADSP-210XX series of DSP processors- Addressing modes and assembly language instructions – Application programs –Filter design, FFT calculation.

UNIT V 9
ADVANCED PROCESSORS

Architecture of TMS320C54X: Pipe line operation, Code Composer studio - Architecture of TMS320C6X - Architecture of Motorola DSP563XX – Comparison of the features of DSP family processors.
TOTAL : 45
REFERENCES

1. B.Venkataramani and M.Bhaskar, “Digital Signal Processors – Architecture, Programming and Applications” – Tata McGraw – Hill Publishing Company Limited. New Delhi, 2003.
2. User guides Texas Instrumentation, Analog Devices, Motorola.

CO1627 NETWORK ROUTING ALGORITHMS 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
CIRCUIT SWITCHING NETWORKS

AT & T’s Dynamic Routing Network, Routing in Telephone Network-Dynamic Non Hierarchical Routing-Trunk Status Map Routing-Real Time Network Routing, Dynamic Alternative Routing-Distributed Adaptive Dynamic Routing-Optimized Dynamic Routing

UNIT II 9
PACKET SWITCHING NETWORKS

Distance vector Routing, Link State Routing, Inter domain Routing-Classless Interdomain routing (CIDR), Interior Gateway routing protocols (IGRP) - Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Exterior Gateway Routing Protocol (EGRP) - Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), Apple Talk Routing and SNA Routing

UNIT III 9
HIGH SPEED NETWORKS

Routing in optical networks-The optical layer, Node Designs, Network design and operation, Optical layer cost tradeoffs, Routing and wavelength assignment, Architectural variations, Routing in ATM networks-ATM address structure, ATM Routing, PNNI protocol, PNNI signaling protocol, Routing in the PLANET network and Deflection Routing.


UNIT IV 9
MOBILE NETWORKS

Routing in Cellular Mobile Radio Communication networks-Mobile Network Architecture, Mobility management in cellular systems, Connectionless Data service for cellular systems, Mobility and Routing in Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) network, Packet Radio Routing-DARPA packet radio network, Routing algorithms for small, medium and large sized packet radio networks.

UNIT V 9
MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS (MANET)

Internet based mobile ad-hoc networking, communication strategies, routing algorithms – Table-driven routing - Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Source initiated on-demand routing- Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad-hoc On- demand Distance Vector (AODV), Hierarchical based routing- Cluster head Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR) and Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA), Quality of Service.
TOTAL : 45

REFERENCES

1. M. Steen strub, “Routing in Communication networks”, Prentice Hall International, NewYork, 1995.
2. “Internetworking Technologies Handbook”, Fourth Edition, Inc. Cisco Systems, ILSG Cisco Systems, 2003.
3. William Stallings, “ISDN and Broadband ISDN with Frame Relay and ATM”, PHI, New Delhi, 2004.
4. Behrouz A Forouzan, “Data Communications and Networking (3/e), TMH, 2004
5. William Stallings, “High Speed Networks TCP/IP and ATM Design Principles”, Prentice Hall International, New York, 1998.
6. Mohammad Ilyas, “The Handbook of Ad hoc Wireless Networks”
CRC Press, 2002.
7. Vijay K.Garg, “Wireless Network Evolution: 2G to 3G”, Pearson Education, New Delhi, India, 2003.
8. Rajiv Ramaswami and Kumar N.Sivarajan, “Optical Networks”,Morgan Kaufmann Publishers,1998.
9. Sumit Kasera and Pankaj sethi, ”ATM Networks”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company limited, New Delhi,2001.
10. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special issue on Wireless Ad-hoc Networks, Vol. 17, No.8, 1999.
11. Scott. M. Corson, Joseph P. Macker, Gregory H. Cirincione, IEEE Internet Computing Vol.3, No. 4, 1999.
12. Alder M.Scheideler.Ch. Annual ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures, ACM, NewYork 1998.
13. http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/
14. www.moment.cs.ucsb.edu

CO1629 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9

History of GPS – BC-4 System – HIRAN – NNSS – NAVSTAR GLONASS and GNSS Systems – GPS Constellation – Space Segment – Control Segment – User Segment – Single and Dual Frequency – Point – Relative – Differential GPS – Static and Kinematic Positioning – 2D and 3D – reporting Anti Spoofing (AS); Selective Availability (SA) – DOP Factors.

UNIT II 9

Coordinate Systems – Geo Centric Coordinate System – Conventional Terrestrial Reference System – Orbit Description – Keplerian Orbit – Kepler Elements – Satellite Visibility – Topocentric Motion – Disturbed Satellite Motion – Perturbed Motion – Disturbing Accelerations - Perturbed Orbit – Time Systems – Astronomical Time System – Atomic Time – GPS Time – Need for Coordination – Link to Earth Rotation – Time and Earth Motion Services.


UNIT III 9

C/A code; P-code; Y-code; L1, L2 Carrier frequencies – Code Pseudo Ranges – Carries Phases – Pseudo Ranges – Satellite Signal Signature – Navigation Messages and Formats – Undifferenced and Differenced Range Models – Delta Ranges – Signal Processing and Processing Techniques – Tracking Networks – Ephemerides – Data Combination: Narrow Lane; Wide Lane – OTF Ambiguity.

UNIT IV 9

Propagation Media – Multipath – Antenna Phase Centre – Atmosphere in brief – Elements of Wave Propagation – Ionospheric Effects on GPS Observations – Code Delay – Phase Advances – Integer Bias – Clock Error – Cycle Slip – Noise-Bias – Blunders – Tropospheric Effects on GPS Oberservables – Multipath Effect – Antenna Phase Centre Problems and Correction.

UNIT V 9

Inter Disciplinary Applications – Crystal Dynamics – Gravity Field Mapping – Atmospheric Occulation – Surveying – Geophysics – Air borne GPS – Ground Transportation – Space borne GPS – Metrological and Climate Research using GPS.
TOTAL : 45
REFERENCES

1. B.Hoffman - Wellenhof, H.Lichtenegger and J.Collins, "GPS: Theory and Practice", 4th revised edition, Springer, Wein, New york,1997
2. A.Leick, "GPS Satellites Surveying", 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons,NewYork,1995
3. B.Parkinson, J.Spilker, Jr.(Eds), "GPS: Theory and Applications", Vol.I & Vol.II, AIAA, 370 L'Enfant Promenade SW, Washington, DC 20024, 1996
4. A.Kleusberg and P.Teunisen(Eds), “GPS for Geodesy”, Springer-Verlag, Berlin,1996
5. L.Adams, "The GPS - A Shared National Asset”, Chair, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1995
Websites:
6. http://www.auslig.gov.au
7. http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov
8. http://gibs.leipzig.ifag.de
9. http://www.navcen.uscg.mil

CO1630 COMMUNICATION NETWORK SECURITY 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
SYMMETRIC CIPHERS (Techniques and Standards) –I

Introduction – Services, Mechanisms and Attacks, OSI security Architecture, Model for network Security; Classical Encryption Techniques- Symmetric Cipher Model, Substitution Techniques, Transposition Techniques, Rotor Machines, Stegnography; Block Ciphers and Data Encryption Standard- Simplified DES, Block Cipher Principles, Data Encryption Standard, Strength of DES, Differential and Linear Crypt Analysis, Block Cipher Design Principles, Block Cipher Modes of Operation.



UNIT II 9
SYMMETRIC CIPHERS (Techniques and Standards) – II

Advanced Encryption Standard- Evaluation Criteria for AES, AES Cipher; Contemporary Symmetric Ciphers- Triple DES, Blowfish, RC5, Characteristics of Advanced Symmetric Block Ciphers, RC4 Stream Cipher; Confidentiality using Symmetric Encryption- Placement of Encryption Function, Traffic Confidentiality, Key Distribution, and Random Number Generation.

UNIT III 9
PUBLIC-KEY ENCRYPTION AND HASH FUNCTIONS

Public Key Cryptography and RSA- Principles of Public Key Cryptosystems, RSA Algorithm; Key Management and other public key cryptosystems- Key Management, Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange, Elliptic Curve arithmetic, Elliptic Curve Cryptography; Message Authentication and Hash Functions- Authentication Requirements, Authentication Functions, Message Authentication Codes, Hash Functions and MACs; Hash Algorithms- MD5 Message Digest Algorithm; Secure Hash Algorithm, RIPEMD 160, HMAC; Digital Signatures and Authentication Protocols- Digital Signatures, Authentication Protocols, Digital Signature Standards.

UNIT IV 9
NETWORK SECURITY PRACTICE

Authentication Applications- Kerberos, X.509 Authentication Service; Electronic Mail Security- Pretty Good Privacy, S/MIME; IP Security- IP Security Overview, IP Security Architecture, Authentication Header, Encapsulating Security Payload, Combining Security Associations; Web Security- Web Security Considerations, Secure Sockets Layer and Transport Layer Security, Secure Electronic Transaction.

UNIT V 9
SYSTEM SECURITY

Intruders- Intruder Detection, Password Management; Malicious Software- Virus and Related Threats, Virus Counter Measures; Firewalls- Firewall Design Principles, Trusted Systems.
TOTAL : 45
REFERENCES

1. William Stallings, “Cryptography and Network Security”, 3ed. Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi ,2004
2. William Stallings, “Network Security Essentials”, 2 ed. Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 2004
3. Charlie Kaufman , “Network Security: Private Communication in Public World”, 2 edition. Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi ,2004




CO1631 SOFT COMPUTING 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

Basic concepts-single layer perceptron-Multi layer perceptron-Adaline-Madaline-Learning rules-Supervised learning-Back propagation networks-Training algorithm, Practical difficulties, Advanced algorithms-Adaptive network- Radial basis network-modular network-Applications

UNIT II 9
UNSUPERVISED NETWORKS

Introduction- unsupervised learning -Competitive learning networks-Kohonen self organising networks-Learning vector quantisation - Hebbian learning - Hopfield network-Content addressable nature, Binary Hopfield network, Continuous Hopfield network Travelling Salesperson problem - Adaptive resonance theory –Bidirectional Associative Memory-Principle component Analysis

UNIT III 9
FUZZY SYSTEMS

Fuzzy sets-Fuzzy rules: Extension principle, Fuzzy relation- fuzzy reasoning – fuzzy inference systems: Mamdani model, Sugeno model. Tsukamoto model -Fuzzy decision making- Multiobjective Decision Making,-Fuzzy classification-Fuzzy control methods -Application

UNIT IV 9
NEURO-FUZZY MODELLING

Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy based inference systems – classification and regression trees: decision tress, Cart algorithm – Data clustering algorithms: K means clustering, Fuzzy C means clustering, Mountain clustering, Subtractive clustering – rule base structure identification – Neuro fuzzy control: Feedback Control Systems, Expert Control, Inverse Learning, Specialized Learning, Back propagation through Real –Time Recurrent Learning.

UNIT V 9
GENETIC ALGORITHM

Fundamentals of genetic algorithm-Mathematical foundations-Genetic modeling-Survival of the fittest-crossover-Inversion and Deletion-mutation-reproduction-Generational cycle-rank method-rank space method- Other derivative free optimization-simulated annealing, Random search, Downhill simplex search-Application
TOTAL : 45

REFERENCES

1. Jang J.S.R.,Sun C.T and Mizutani E – “Neuro Fuzzy and Soft computing”, Pearson education (Singapore) 2004
2. David E.Goldberg : “Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning”, Pearson Education, Asia,1996
3. Laurene Fauseett:”Fundamentals of Neural Networks”, Prentice Hall India, New Delhi,1994.
4. Timothy J.Ross:”Fuzzy Logic Engineering Applications”, McGrawHill, NewYork,1997.
5. S.Rajasekaran and G.A.Vijayalakshmi Pai “Neural networks,Fuzzy logics,and Genetic algorithms”, Prentice Hall of India,2003
6. George J.Klir and Bo Yuan,”Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic”,Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey,1995

CO1632 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION RECEIVERS 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
REVIEW OF DIGITAL COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES

Base band and band pass communication, signal space representation, linear and non- linear modulation techniques, and spectral characteristics of digital modulation.

UNIT II 9
OPTIMUM RECEIVERS FOR AWGN CHANNEL

Correlation demodulator, matched filter, maximum likelihood sequence detector, Optimum receiver for CPM signals, M-ary orthogonal signals, envelope detectors for M-ary and correlated binary signals.

UNIT III 9
RECEIVERS FOR FADING CHANNELS

Characterization of fading multiple channels, statistical models, slow fading, frequency selective fading, diversity technique, RAKE demodulator, coded waveform for fading channel

UNIT IV 9
SYNCHRONIZATION TECHNIQUES

Carrier and symbol synchronization, carrier phase estimation – PLL, Decision directed loops, symbol timing estimation, maximum likelihood and non-decision directed timing estimation, joint estimation.

UNIT V 9
ADAPTIVE EQUALIZATION

Zero forcing algorithm, LMS algorithm, Adaptive decision – feedback equalizer, and equalization of Trellis-coded signals, Kalman algorithm, blind equalizers, and stochastic gradient algorithm, Echo cancellation
TOTAL : 45
REFERENCES
1. Heinrich Meyer, Mare Moeneclacy and Stefan.A. Fechtel, “Digital Communication Receivers”, Vol I & II, John Wiley, New York, 1997
2. John. G. Proakis, “Digital Communication”, 4th ed., McGraw Hill, New York, 2001
3. E.A. Lee and D.G. Messerschmitt, “Digital Communication”, 2nd edition, Allied Publishers, New Delhi, 1994
4. Simon Marvin, “Digital Communication Over Fading channel; An unified approach to performance Analysis”, John Wiley, New York, 2000
5. Bernard Sklar, “Digital Communication Fundamentals and Applications, Prentice Hall, 1998

CO1628 SIMULATION OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS & NETWORKS
3 0 0 100
UNIT I 9
MODELLING OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Model of speech and picture signals, Pseudo noise sequences, Non-linear sequences, Analog channel model, Noise and fading, Digital channel model-Gilbert model of bursty channels, HF, Troposcatter and satellite channels, Switched telephone channels, Analog and Digital communication system models, Light wave system models.

UNIT II 9
SIMULATION OF RANDOM VARIABLES AND RANDOM PROCESS

Univariate and multivariate models, Transformation of random variables, Bounds and approximation, Random process models-Markov and ARMA Sequences, Sampling rate for simulation, Computer generation and testing of random numbers

UNIT III 9
ESTIMATION OF PERFORMANCE MEASURES

Quality of an estimator, estimator for SNR, Probability density functions of analog communication system, BER of digital communication systems, Monte Carlo method and Importance of sampling method, estimation of power spectral density

UNIT IV 9
COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

Queuing models, M/M/I and M/M/I/N queues, Little formula, Burke's theorem ,M/G/I queue, Embedded Markov chain analysis of TDM systems, Polling, Random access systems

UNIT V 9
NETWORK OF QUEUES

Queues in tandem, store and forward communication networks, capacity allocation, Congestion and flow chart, Routing model, Network layout and Reliability
TOTAL : 45

REFERENCES

1. M.C.Jeruchim,Philip Balaban and K.Sam Shanmugam, "Simulation of communication systems", Plenum Press, New York,1992
2. A.M.Law and W.David Kelton, "Simulation Modelling and analysis", Mc Graw Hill Inc., New York ,1991
3. J.F.Hayes, “Modelling and Analysis of Computer Communication networks”, Plenum Press, New York,1984
4. Jerry Banks and John S.Carson, “Discrete-event System Simulation”, Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey,1984

CO1654 COMMUNICATION SYSTEM LAB II 0 0 4 100
1. Simulation of Audio and speech compression algorithms
2. Simulation of EZW / SPIHT Image coding algorithm.
3. Simulation of Microstrip Antennas
4. S-parameter estimation of Microwave devices.
5. Study of Global Positioning System.
6. Performance evaluation of simulated CDMA System.
7. Design and testing of a Microstrip coupler.
8. Characteristics of λ/4 and λ/2 transmission lines.

WS1621 MULTIMEDIA COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES 3 0 0 100


UNIT I 9
INTRODUCTION

Special features of Multimedia – Graphics and Image Data Representations – Fundamental Concepts in Video and Digital Audio – Storage requirements for multimedia applications -Need for Compression - Taxonomy of compression techniques – Overview of source coding, source models, scalar and vector quantization theory – Evaluation techniques – Error analysis and methodologies

UNIT II 9
TEXT COMPRESSION

Compaction techniques – Huffmann coding – Adaptive Huffmann Coding – Arithmatic coding – Shannon-Fano coding – Dictionary techniques – LZW family algorithms.

UNIT III 9
AUDIO COMPRESSION

Audio compression techniques - μ- Law and A- Law companding. Frequency domain and filtering – Basic sub-band coding – Application to speech coding – G.722 – Application to audio coding – MPEG audio, progressive encoding for audio – Silence compression, speech compression techniques – Formant and CELP Vocoders

UNIT IV 9
IMAGE COMPRESSION

Predictive techniques – DM, PCM, DPCM: Optimal Predictors and Optimal Quantization – Contour based compression – Transform Coding – JPEG Standard – Sub-band coding algorithms: Design of Filter banks – Wavelet based compression: Implementation using filters – EZW, SPIHT coders – JPEG 2000 standards - JBIG, JBIG2 standards.

UNIT V 9

VIDEO COMPRESSION

Video compression techniques and standards – MPEG Video Coding I: MPEG – 1 and 2 – MPEG Video Coding II: MPEG – 4 and 7 – Motion estimation and compensation techniques – H.261 Standard – DVI technology – PLV performance – DVI real time compression – Packet Video.

Total: 45

REFERENCES:


1. Khalid Sayood : Introduction to Data Compression, Morgan Kauffman Harcourt India, 2nd Edition, 2000.
2. David Salomon : Data Compression – The Complete Reference, Springer Verlag New York Inc., 2nd Edition, 2001.
3. Yun Q.Shi, Huifang Sun : Image and Video Compression for Multimedia Engineering - Fundamentals, Algorithms & Standards, CRC press, 2003.
4. Peter Symes : Digital Video Compression, McGraw Hill Pub., 2004.
5. Mark Nelson : Data compression, BPB Publishers, New Delhi,1998.
6. Mark S.Drew, Ze-Nian Li : Fundamentals of Multimedia, PHI, 1st Edition, 2003.
7. Watkinson,J : Compression in Video and Audio, Focal press,London.1995.
8. Jan Vozer : Video Compression for Multimedia, AP Profes, NewYork, 1995


DC1621 HIGH SPEED SWITCHING ARCHITECTURE 3 0 0 100
UNIT I 9
HIGH SPEED NETWORK :

Introduction- LAN, WAN, Network evolution through ISDN to B-ISDN, Transfer mode and control of B-ISDN, SDH multiplexing structure, ATM standard, ATM adaptation layers.

UNIT II 9
LAN SWITCHING TECHNOLOGY :

Switching Concepts, switch forwarding techniques, switch path control, LAN Switching, cut through forwarding, store and forward, virtual LANs

UNIT III 9
ATM SWITCHING ARCHITECTURE

Switch model, Blocking networks - basic - and- enhanced banyan networks, sorting networks - merge sorting, re-arrangable networks - full-and- partial connection networks, non blocking networks - Recursive network construction, comparison of non-blocking network, Switching with deflection routing - shuffle switch, tandem banyan

UNIT IV 9
QUEUES IN ATM SWITCHES

Internal Queueing -Input, output and shared queueing, multiple queueing networks – combined Input, output and shared queueing - performance analysis of Queued switches.

UNIT V 9
IP SWITCHING

Addressing model, IP Switching types - flow driven and topology driven solutions, IP Over ATM address and next hop resolution, multicasting, Ipv6 over ATM.

TOTAL : 45
REFERENCES
1. Achille Pattavina, Swtching Theory: Architectures and performance in Broadband ATM networks "John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New York. 1998
2. Christopher Y Metz, Switching protocols & Architectures, McGraw - Hill Professional Publishing, NewYork.1998.
3. Rainer Handel, Manfred N Huber, Stefan Schroder, ATM Networks - Concepts Protocols, Applications III Edition, Addison Wesley, New York. 1999.
4. John A.Chiong: Internetworking ATM for the internet and enterprise networks. McGraw Hill, New York, 1998.
.


CO1625 WAVELETS AND MUTIRESOLUTION PROCESSING 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
INTRODUCTION

Vector Spaces - properties - dot product - basis - dimension, orthogonality and orthonormality - relationship between vectors and signals - Signal spaces - concept of Convergence - Hilbert spaces for energy signals - Generalised Fourier Expansion.

UNIT II 9
MULTI RESOLUTION ANALYSIS

Definition of Multi Resolution Analysis (MRA) – Haar basis - Construction of general orthonormal MRA-Wavelet basis for MRA – Continuous time MRA interpretation for the DTWT – Discrete time MRA- Basis functions for the DTWT – PRQMF filter banks

UNIT III 9
CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM

Wavelet Transform - definition and properties - concept of scale and its relation with frequency - Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) - Scaling function and wavelet functions (Daubechies, Coiflet, Mexican Hat, Sinc, Gaussian, Bi-Orthogonal) - Tiling of time -scale plane for CWT.

UNIT IV 9
DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM

Filter Bank and sub band coding principles - Wavelet Filters - Inverse DWT computation by Filter banks -Basic Properties of Filter coefficients - Choice of wavelet function coefficients - Derivations of Daubechies Wavelets -Mallat's algorithm for DWT – Multi-band Wavelet transforms.
Lifting Scheme: Wavelet Transform using Polyphase matrix Factorization - Geometrical foundations of lifting scheme - Lifting scheme in Z -domain

UNIT V 9
APPLICATIONS

Signal Compression – Image Compression techniques: EZW-SPHIT Coding - Image denoising techniques: Noise estimation - Shrinkage rules -. Shrinkage Functions - Edge detection and object Isolation, Image Fusion, and Object Detection. Curve and Surface Editing- Variational modeling and finite element method using wavelets.

TOTAL : 45


REFERENCES

1. Rao .R.M and A.S.Bopardikar, "Wavelet Transforms: Introduction to theory and Applications”, Pearson Education Asia Pte. Ltd., 2000.
2. K.P.Soman and K.I.Ramachandran,” Insight into Wavelets – From Theory to practice”, Prentice- Hall, 2004.
3. Strang G, Nguyen T, "Wavelets and Filter Banks," Wellesley Cambridge Press, 1996
4. Vetterli M, Kovacevic J., "Wavelets and Sub-band Coding," Prentice Hall, 1995
5. Mallat S., "Wavelet Signal Processing”, Academic Press, 1996


AN1628 INTERNETWORKING MULTIMEDIA 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
MULTIMEDIA NETWORKING

Digital sound, video and graphics, basic multimedia networking, multimedia characteristics, evolution of Internet services model, network requirements for audio/ video transform, multimedia coding and compression for text, image, audio and video.

UNIT II 9
BROADBAND NETWORK TECHNOLOGY

Broadband services, ATM and IP, IPV6, High speed switching, resource reservation, Buffer management, traffic shaping, caching, scheduling, and policing, throughput, delay and jitter performance. Storage and media services, voice and video over IP, MPEG-2 over ATM/IP, indexing synchronization of requests, recording and remote control.

UNIT III 9
RELIABLE TRANSPORT PROTOCOL AND APPLICATIONS

Multicast over shared media network, multicast routing and addressing, scaling multicast and NBMA networks, Reliable transport protocols, TCP adaptation algorithm, RTP, RTCP. MIME, Peer- to-Peer computing, shared application, video conferencing, centralized and distributed conference control, distributed virtual reality, light weight session philosophy.

UNIT IV 9
MULTIMEDIA COMMUNICATION STANDARDS

Objective of MPEG- 7 standard, Functionalities and systems of MPEG-7, MPEG-21 Multimedia Framework Architecture, - Content representation, Content Management and usage, Intellectual property management, Audio visual system- H322: Guaranteed QOS LAN systems; MPEG_4 video Transport across internet.


UNIT V 9
MULTIMEDIA COMMUNICATION ACROSS NETWORKS

Packet Audio/video in the network environment, video transport across Generic networks- Layered video coding, error Resilient video coding techniques, Scalable Rate control, Streaming video across Internet, Multimedia transport across ATM networks and IP network, Multimedia across wireless networks.

TOTAL : 45
REFERENCES

1. Jon Crowcroft, Mark Handley, Ian Wakeman, Internetworking Multimedia,
Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd. Singapore, 1998.
2. B.O. Szuprowicz, Multimedia Networking, McGraw Hill, Newyork. 1995
3. Tay Vaughan, Multimedia - Making it to work, 4ed, Tata McGraw Hill , NewDelhi, 2000.
4. K.R.Rao, Zoran S. Bojkovic and Dragorad A. Milovanovic, Multimedia Communication systems, PHI , 2003

AN1654 EMBEDDED SYSTEMS 3 0 0 100
UNIT I 9
EMBEDDED ARCHITECTURE

Embedded Computers, Characteristics of Embedded Computing Applications, Challenges in Embedded Computing system design, Embedded system design process- Requirements, Specification, Architectural Design, Designing Hardware and Software Components, System Integration, Formalism for System Design- Structural Description, Behavioral Description, Design Example: Model Train Controller

UNIT II 9

EMBEDDED PROCESSOR AND COMPUTING PLATFORM

ARM processor- processor and memory organization, Data operations, Flow of Control, SHARC processor- Memory organization, Data operations, Flow of Control, parallelism with instructions, CPU Bus configuration, ARM Bus, SHARC Bus, Memory devices, Input/output devices, Component interfacing, designing with microprocessor development and debugging, Design Example : Alarm Clock.

UNIT III 9
NETWORKS

Distributed Embedded Architecture- Hardware and Software Architectures, Networks for embedded systems- I2C, CAN Bus, SHARC link pports, ethernet, Myrinet, Internet, Network-Based design- Communication Analysis, system performance Analysis, Hardware platform design, Allocation and scheduling, Design Example: Elevator Controller.

UNIT IV 9
REAL-TIME CHARACTERISTICS

Clock driven Approach, weighted round robin Approach, Priority driven Approach, Dynamic Versus Static systems, effective release times and deadlines, Optimality of the Earliest deadline first (EDF) algorithm, challenges in validating timing constraints in priority driven systems, Off-line Versus On-line scheduling.

UNIT V 9
SYSTEM DESIGN TECHNIQUES

Design Methodologies, Requirement Analysis, Specification, System Analysis and Architecture Design, Quality Assurance, Design Example: Telephone PBX- System Architecture, Ink jet printer- Hardware Design and Software Design, Personal Digital Assistants, Set-top Boxes.
TOTAL : 45
REFERENCES

1. Wayne Wolf, Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computing System Design, Morgan Kaufman Publishers, 2001.
2. Jane.W.S. Liu Real-Time systems, Pearson Education Asia, 2000
3. C. M. Krishna and K. G. Shin , Real-Time Systems, ,McGraw-Hill, 1997
4. Frank Vahid and Tony Givargi, Embedded System Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, s, John Wiley & Sons, 2000.

AN1629 ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE AND COMPATIBILITY IN SYSTEM DESIGN 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
EMI ENVIRONMENT

EMI/EMC concepts and definitions, Sources of EMI, conducted and radiated EMI, Transient EMI, Time domain Vs Frequency domain EMI, Units of measurement parameters, Emission and immunity concepts, ESD.

UNIT II 9
EMI COUPLING PRINCIPLES

Conducted, Radiated and Transient Coupling, Common Impedance Ground Coupling, Radiated Common Mode and Ground Loop Coupling, Radiated Differential Mode Coupling, Near Field Cable to Cable Coupling, Power Mains and Power Supply coupling.

UNIT III 9
EMI/EMC STANDARDS AND MEASUREMENTS

Civilian standards - FCC,CISPR,IEC,EN,Military standards - MIL STD 461D/462, EMI Test Instruments /Systems, EMI Shielded Chamber, Open Area Test Site, TEM Cell, Sensors/Injectors/Couplers, Test beds for ESD and EFT, Military Test Method and Procedures (462).

UNIT IV 9
EMI CONTROL TECHNIQUES

Shielding, Filtering, Grounding, Bonding, Isolation Transformer, Transient Suppressors, Cable Routing, Signal Control, Component Selection and Mounting.

UNIT V 9
EMC DESIGN OF PCBs

PCB Traces Cross Talk, Impedance Control, Power Distribution Decoupling, Zoning, Motherboard Designs and Propagation Delay Performance Models.
TOTAL : 45
REFERENCES
1. Henry W.Ott, "Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems", John Wiley and Sons, NewYork. 1988.
2. C.R.Paul, “Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility” , John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 1992
3. V.P.Kodali, "Engineering EMC Principles, Measurements and Technologies", IEEE Press, 1996.
4. Bernhard Keiser, "Principles of Electromagnetic Compatibility", Artech house, 3rd Ed, 1986.

CO1653 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION 3 0 0 100


UNIT I 9
ORBITAL MECHANICS

Kepler's laws of motion, Orbits, Orbit Equations, Orbit Description, Locating the Satellite in the Orbit and with Respect to Earth, Orbital Elements-Look Angle Determination and Visibility - Orbital Perturbations, Orbit Determination, Launch Vehicles, Orbital Effects in Communication System - Performance Attitude control; Satellite launch vehicles. spectrum allocations for satellite systems.

UNIT II 9
SPACECRAFT SUB SYSTEMS AND EARTH STATION

Spacecraft Subsystems, Altitude and Orbit Control, Telemetry and Tracking, Power Systems, Communication Subsystems, Transponders, Antennas, Equipment Reliability, Earth Stations, Example of payloads of operating and planned systems.

UNIT III 9
SPACE LINKS

The Space Link, Satellite Link Design - Satellite uplink -down link power Budget, Basic Transmission Theory, System Noise Temp, G/T Ratio, Noise Figure, Downlink Design, Design of Satellite Links for Specified C/N - Microwave Propagation on Satellite-Earth Paths. Interference between satellite circuits, Energy Dispersal, propagation characteristics of fixed and mobile satellite links.


UNIT IV 9
MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES AND NETWORK ASPECTS

Single access vs. multiple access (MA). Classical MA techniques: FDMA, TDMA. Single channel per carrier (SCPC) access - Code division multiple access (CDMA). Demand assignment techniques. Examples of MA techniques for existing and planned systems (e.g. the satellite component of UMTS).Mobile satellite network design, ATM via satellite. TCP/IP via satellite - Call control, handover and call set up procedures. Hybrid satellite-terrestrial networks

UNIT V 9
SERVICES AND APPLICATIONS

Fixed and mobile services - Multimedia satellite services - Advanced applications based on satellite platforms - INTELSAT series - INSAT, VSAT, Remote Sensing - Mobile satellite service: GSM. GPS, INMARSAT, Navigation System, Direct to Home service (DTH), Special services, E-mail, Video conferencing and Internet connectivity
TOTAL : 45
REFERENCES
1. Dennis Roddy, “Satellite Communications”, Third Edition, Mc Graw Hill International Editions, 2001
2. Bruce R.Elbert, "The Satellite Communication Applications Hand Book, Artech House Boston,1997.
3. Wilbur L.Pritchard, Hendri G.Suyderhood, Robert A.Nelson,"Satellite Communication Systems Engineering", II Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1993
4. Tri T.Ha, "Digital satellite communication", 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New york.1990

CO1622 ADVANCED MICROWAVE SYSTEMS 3 0 0 100

UNIT I 9
FIELD ANALYSIS OF PLANAR TRANSMISSION LINES

Microstrip Transmission Lines – Attenuation – High frequency properties of Microstrip lines. Coupled Microstrip lines – even and odd modes. Strip transmission lines – Coupled strip lines – Fin lines.

UNIT II 9
CIRCUIT THEORY FOR WAVE GUIDE SYSTEMS

Equivalent voltages and currents – Impedance description of waveguide elements and circuits – one port circuit. Foster’s reactance theorem. N-port circuits. Two port junctions. Excitation of waveguides. Probe coupling in rectangular waveguide. Radiation from linear current elements and current loops. Waveguide coupling by apertures.


UNIT III 9
PERIODIC STRUCTURES AND FILTERS

Wave analysis of periodic structures. Periodic structures composed of Unsymmetrical two port networks. Terminated Periodic structures. Matching of Periodic structures. Floquet’s theorem and spatial Harmonics. Microwave Filters – Image parameter method. Filter design by insertion loss method. Low pass filter design. Microstrip parallel coupled filter.

UNIT IV 9
MICROWAVE SOLID STATE AMPLIFIERS

S-parameters - Unilateral design of amplifiers – simultaneous conjugate match. Bilateral design of amplifiers. Amplifier stability. Conditional and unconditional stability criteria. Amplifier power gain. Constant gain circles. Noise temperature concept. Noise factor and noise figure. Noise temperature for cascaded stages. Constant noise figure circles. Design of single stage microwave amplifiers.

UNIT V 9
MICROWAVES AND OPTICS

Geometrical optics as a limiting case of wave optics. Ray matrices for paraxial ray optics. Gaussian beams. Generation of Gaussian beams at microwave frequencies. The beam waist. Propagation of Gaussian beams in Homogeneous medium. Transformation of Gaussian beams with lenses.
TOTAL : 45

REFERENCES
1. R.E.Collin, “ Foundations for Microwave Engineering”, McGraw-Hill, 1992.
2. Ramo, Whinnery and Van Duzer : “Fields and Waves in communication electronics”. 3rd Edition., Wiley, 1997.


CO1626 SPEECH AND AUDIO SIGNAL PROCESSING 3 0 0 100

UNIT I
MECHANICS OF SPEECH 9

Speech production mechanism – Nature of Speech signal – Discrete time modelling of Speech production – Representation of Speech signals – Classification of Speech sounds – Phones – Phonemes – Phonetic and Phonemic alphabets – Articulatory features.
Music production – Auditory perception – Anatomical pathways from the ear to the perception of sound – Peripheral auditory system – Psycho acoustics

UNIT II
TIME DOMAIN METHODS FOR SPEECH PROCESSING 9

Time domain parameters of Speech signal – Methods for extracting the parameters Energy, Average Magnitude – Zero crossing Rate – Silence Discrimination using ZCR and energy – Short Time Auto Correlation Function – Pitch period estimation using Auto Correlation Function


UNIT III
FREQUENCY DOMAIN METHOD FOR SPEECH PROCESSING 9

Short Time Fourier analysis – Filter bank analysis – Formant extraction – Pitch Extraction – Analysis by Synthesis- Analysis synthesis systems- Phase vocoder—Channel Vocoder. Homomorphic speech analysis: Cepstral analysis of Speech – Formant and Pitch Estimation – Homomorphic Vocoders.

UNIT IV
LINEAR PREDICTIVE ANALYSIS OF SPEECH 9

Formulation of Linear Prediction problem in Time Domain – Basic Principle – Auto correlation method – Covariance method – Solution of LPC equations – Cholesky method – Durbin’s Recursive algorithm – lattice formation and solutions – Comparison of different methods – Application of LPC parameters – Pitch detection using LPC parameters – Formant analysis – VELP – CELP.

UNIT V
APPLICATION OF SPEECH & AUDIO SIGNAL PROCESSING 9

Algorithms: Spectral Estimation, dynamic time warping, hidden Markov model – Music analysis – Pitch Detection – Feature analysis for recognition – Music synthesis – Automatic Speech Recognition – Feature Extraction for ASR – Deterministic sequence recognition – Statistical Sequence recognition – ASR systems – Speaker identification and verification – Voice response system – Speech Synthesis: Text to speech, voice over IP.

REFERENCES

1. Ben Gold and Nelson Morgan, Speech and Audio Signal Processing, John Wiley and Sons Inc. , Singapore, 2004
2. L.R.Rabiner and R.W.Schaffer – Digital Processing of Speech signals – Prentice Hall -1978
3. Quatieri – Discrete-time Speech Signal Processing – Prentice Hall – 2001.
4. J.L.Flanagan – Speech analysis: Synthesis and Perception – 2nd edition – Berlin – 1972
5. I.H.Witten – Principles of Computer Speech – Academic Press – 1982

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